Security is ensuring and providing life by creating necessary measures and arrangements. Security is procedure of making a home and shelter for life.
Security is supportive and protective umbrella that cause convenience and comfort (1).
Security is ensuring a life with welfare.
So, based on these three aspects of social life, those are equal to main three theoretical patterns in sociology i.e. regulation, development and freedom paradigms, we could also imagine at least three level for security: survival, satisfaction and beauty.
Thus, regarding these aspects, security could be defined as ensuring life, guaranteeing life satisfaction and understanding freedom and beauties such that cause convenience and peace.
Given the level of societal security, since the community is based on relations and mutual interaction among its members and with other communities, the type of mutual interactions can be considered as a criterion for identifying the status of societal Security (2).
Mutual cooperation and bilateral relations are different in three levels of security i.e.
survival, development and satisfaction, freedom and beauty.
So that the interactions at the level of survival are referred to processes of cooperation and competence for life chances.
Societal security because of being novel, has not still a dominant theoretical perspective, but also has its own conceptual process.
There are three mainstreams in the form of societal security:
1– Security in society means the security of foundations of society like highways and bridges, airports and railway stations, refineries and power generation facilities, protect public health, appropriate economic level, jobs and careers, price stability, democracy, rights and privileges, and so on.
2– Buzan and Copenhagen school theorists explain societal security through preservation of “identity” preservation of language, customs, traditions, beliefs, etc.
3– Ability to promote community into self-reliance and independence.
Which leverages does society need for development and progress? Protecting such leverages can guarantee the survival of society that is security.
One of the main levers is “accountability”. In economy; accountability of investor. In civic and democratic institutions; accountability to the electorate. And in legal institutions; accountability of officials to law and legal rights.
Apart from these three mainstreams, security experts each have outlined their vision for societal security.
1- Navidnia, Manijeh, 2009. ‘Societal Security’, Tehran: Research Institute of Strategic Studies (Rahbordi), p 58.
2- Navidnia, Manijeh, 2009. ‘Societal Security’, Tehran: Research Institute of Strategic Studies (Rahbordi), p 77.
3- Leszczyński, Marek, 2010. ‘Formation of the Societal Security by the State’, Žilnsk Áuniverzita V Žiline.
4- Buzan, Barry, 1993. ‘Societal Security, State Security and Internationalisation’, in Ole Wæver, Barry Buzan, Morten Kelstrup & Pierre Lemaitre, Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe. London: Pinter (41–58).